A Remembrance of the Past; Building for the Future." ~ Eve Eckert Koehler

Remembering Our Danube Swabian Ancestors

The Church

by Dr. Viktor Pratscher
Translated by Brad Schwebler

   The church building, in the middle of all these difficulties the community forgot they had already prepared plan of 1868: not to build a place of worship.  Then in 1870 the school collapsed and the new one was erected from bricks already laid out for the place of worship.  We could say that the place of worship must be made out of thin air.  Just the opposite is true!  The community meeting at the school building on the 20th of March 1870 already mentioned was not only about the school building but also about the construction of the place of worship.  It was decided that the place of worship was to be built on level ground parallel with the Hungarian church with the gable to be placed facing the magnificent guest house . . . Furthermore it was decided that one of the three men of an existing deputation would be sent to the building contractor Andreas Jakob in Neu Werbaß with the plan and a rough estimate of costs to make the uplifting place of worship - also to negotiate and come to a settlement, in case the buyer did not want this building, the community would not owe him for the plan and the rough estimates.  The feasibility of this was entrusted to Philipp  Orth, Anton Kleb and Johann Brauchler.  These men completed their tasks well.  On the 10th of April a community meeting took place at the German church service in the Hungarian church at which the plan and the rough estimates were presented.  The assembly accepted the plan and gave the hopeful impression that the contractor would decrease some of the intended costs of 2487.91 Forints and decided unanimously (l) to dictate the following outcome: each couple was to pay 5 Forints, another 5 Forints for each homeowner, and 5 Forints for each quarter field, the sum of which was paid in two parts.  That was very much at the time!

   More than a year later the minutes mentioned nothing about the construction of the place of worship.  On the 17th of September 1871 the pastor could inform the community assembly that financial aid of 300 Forints was coming from the superintendent for the construction.  It was then unanimously decided to begin construction in the same year: the foundation should be laid.  After that the building contractor from Schowe and Werbaß did not want to undertake the construction with the plan that he, Andreas Jakob, had designed and had been entrusted with.  On the 26th of September the contract was signed at a meeting.  Present at the meeting were Rev. Kozma, the chairman Anton Kleb, Adam Schade, Ludwig Orth, Jakob Zuschlag, Heinrich Schwepler, church father Jakob Hunstein, community judge Philipp Orth, teacher Schenkenberger, who represented the community members Martin Bolz, Johann Brauchler, Heinrich Schmoll, and Johann Eng, and finally the building contractor Andreas Jakob" . . . besides the walls, (Koth?) bricks and roof tiles which the community made, 2500 Forints was granted to him (the building contractor) for the complete establishment and furnishing of the place of worship." (Schenkenberger, S.7) He received a statement of 400 Forints and was obliged to begin the construction in the same year.

   However the construction of the place of worship was first begun in the spring of 1872 and progressed through the summer and was finished in the fall, and on the last Sunday in October 1872 (durch den wohl?) opened.  Rev. Kozma Lajos held the first church service and dedicated it to the honor of God. - Although the community to a large degree was still burdened by the construction of the place of worship, the joy of the community was extremely great." (Schenkenberger, S.8)

   What everyone reported of this building is pleasing.  Then on the 17th of September 1871 the pastor announced at the community meeting that 300 Forints in financial aid had been received for the construction and he could also inform them at the same time that in the superintendent's minutes "the willing sacrifices of the German branch community was stressed to be praiseworthy."  In the minutes of the same community meeting it says: "In the end the pastor has stressed and desired an eager stand on the current beautiful harmony of the community. - the meeting closed."  Unanimously the community took a huge burden off of themselves, so that the community member would not have to pay the prescribed taxes many times in the same year.  But now the community had their own place of worship which was most important to them.

   Now we skip over the course of the historical order and report further about the church up to today.  Purchase of the bells and construction of the tower: As we heard the plan for the purchase of the bells was already seriously considered in 1868, but because of the purchase of the house lot and the new construction, it must be postponed at the time.  But not forever!  In 1884 this plan was not only considered, but also realized.  On the 30th of March the request was discussed by the elders and "decided that according to two chairman with a collective bow they have gone to see all community members and they pledged that after that since the church treasury was still very small, the purchase of the bells could only be carried out with ample donations.  The community meeting on the 14th of April also decided that the bells "if possible should still be purchased this year."  That was the general desire of the community.  That also proved to be the still existing collective list: In 1884 there were 67 contributors who donated 128.70 Florints.  In the following years another 8.50 Forints were received for it. 

   But they must also erect the tower on the place of worship for the bells.  The work was awarded to Jakob Kniesel of Crvenka, who had built the teacher's apartment in 1878.  The church father negotiated it with him in the name of the elders, and for the establishment of a (Thurmes) tower an amount of about 240 Forints in Austrian currency was set aside for it."  On the 15th of June the elders decided to order two bells with the combined weight of about 425 kg. with the keys of C and D sharp.  On the 13th of July the pastor announced that the bell foundry in (Bochum) Germany would make the desired bells together with the accessories and deliver them for about 234 Marks.  Payment conditions were: "1/3 of the amount when placing the order, 1/3 upon receipt of the bells, and the remainder by the 1st of November" must be paid off by the community.  This offer was then also accepted.  The tower and the belfry were finished in the same year and the bells were received.  But the minutes don't let us know anything more about it.  The bells must have been received about the 4th of November, then the final bill of 1884/85 was served on this day: "4/10 as the second deadline for the bells of 248.65 Forints."  This confirmed a statement in the family records of the family of Johann Weißmann, that the first time the bells rang were for Johann Weißmann Sr. when he died on the 11th of November 1884.  But on the 2nd of November the death of Christian Beck is entered into the register.  After all the calculations the total cost of the bells came to 562.65 Forints.

   The larger bell had the inscription: "Bochum Society. Steel casting factory 1884."  However the smaller bell only said "Bochum 1884."  Otherwise it was provided with the usual beautiful logical quotations.  But the bells are there to call all those who are faithful to church service where they can hear the word of God and should pray to Him and praise Him.  Many have heard His call up to this day, but many more have not heard His call and do not want to hear.

   On the 18th of October 1884 the elders settled on the following "bell ringing rule": "a) For Sunday church service: about 9 o'clock the first bell and about 10 o'clock together, (that is, together with both bells). b) At funerals: a half hour before the funeral the first bell, then at the house together and also from the house to the cemetery together and at a large funeral (at burials of those already confirmed) the bells are rung together again during the eulogy in the church.  c) At a wedding: about 10:30 the first bell, about 10:45 the second bell, and about 11 o'clock together."  On the 1st of March this rule had added to it, "that the Evangelical (Lutheran) wife of a Reformed man also gets to have the bells rung for her free of charge. - In the case of deaths . . .  if the bells should be rung for non-community members, in this case 40% should be paid to the community treasury and 20% in Austrian currency to the bell ringer per funeral (body).  This rule has since been altered so that now the first bell is rung about 8:45 for the Sunday church service and about 9:30 the bells are rung together, but before a wedding only the first bell is rung and then after a half hour they will be rung together.  The bell ringer now receives half of the money for ringing the bells.

   During the war many of the communities had to give up their bells for war purposes.  In 1916 this community also had to deliver their larger bell and also said farewell to it during one of the church services held by Rev. Josef Poth of Schowe.  But as it turned out the bells are made of cast iron, so they were not taken and remained there.

   Changes in the church.  What was already decided in 1885 caused quarrels to develop and because of it, the decision was not carried out until 1888: that is, the red tiles under the benches were taken out because of the cold "and the bench thresholds were made of boards."  Then the existing loft was made only of boards which made it very strong, and it was covered with reeds and clay.

   In the summer of 1903 Jakob Klepp had the inside of the church painted at some expense.  Then two windows were also inserted in the front so it would be lighter for the choir.  This was necessary before all else because the community purchased a Harmonium (organ) which stood there and which the teacher used from then on to lead the community in singing.

   The community members donated 345.20 Kronen for the Harmonium which cost a total of 660.81 Kronen.

   In 1913 electric light was introduced into the church.  This was paid by Jakob Weißmann Sr. on the condition that "on Sylvester Evening, as it was the custom in many communities, a service would be held to thank God."  Since then a service to thank God has also always been held in this community on the last day of the year.

   In 1926 an old organ was purchased from the Reformed community of Stari-Vrbas.  After using it for some years it needed to be thoroughly repaired, which is why the Harmonium was used again in the church services.

   On the 28th of April 1935, on the parting day of Rev. Müller, after one of his festival speeches, a memorial plaque was unveiled which bore the following wording:

Memorial Plaque

To the victims of the World War

Soldiers Killed in Action:

Johann Schmidt
Johann Brauchler
Heinrich Weißmann
Ludwig Geres
Heinrich Gams 

Those who Died:

Christian Röhrich
Wilhelm Göttel
Adam Rieß
Jakob Eng
Friedrich Hauser 


Nikolaus Nadich
Friedrich Eng
Adam Eng
Karl Dinges
Filipp Dinges
Filipp Hauser
Adam Brauchler
Christian Spankus

Nobody has a greater life than he,
Who has given his life for a friend.
- dedicated by Jakob Göttel (Sch.)


   Now we turn back to the year 1872.  From the middle of June 1872 to September 1875 all of the minutes recordings are missing.

   In the meantime Schenkenberger shall again tell about us:

   "But this joy (mainly because of the completed place of worship) should once again be spoiled, not long will they have the luck in building their place of worship and uplifting contemplations from the mouth of their well-respected and recognized pastor to reflect upon.  It was decided by providence and after a lengthy period of suffering and after giving his best years and work, their well-respected shephard of souls was taken from their side and crossed over to the eternal house of heavenly peace.

   . . . In the month of February (the 22nd) the election for the pastor was carried out in the Hungarian parent community and the dignified Rev. Janos Szilady was elected as pastor.  With his appearance in the community the community soon found that they were compensated through his spiritual work and gentle behavior.  Now the community wanted to go to work with still greater self-sacrifice to heal their souls.  Instead of the usual habit in which the church service was so far held on every second Sunday, now they wished for the church service to be held on every Sunday.  For such an effort the pastor of the parent and branch communities did not have the strength to consent to it at this time, but he gave them room for hope, with all possible strength for the well-being of the community to work, for the time being it was arranged that the sacrament was to be given with the church service on every second Sunday, just as with all official functions and matters which happen in the branch community.  

The German Reformed Church

   The community saw that their demands on the pastor were too great, so they asked him if they could have the teacher hold the church service on the second Sunday for a moderate fee which they could afford and induced him to do it.

   The teacher was sensible about it and was well-inclined to comply with the desire of the community.  So the pastor was promised 240 Florints a year for his service and the teacher was promised 70 Florints.

   During this activity and in the apparent eagerness so far, the community was soon again paralyzed.  In the fall of 1875 the building contractor Andreas Jakob demanded that they pay him the rest together with interest for building the place of worship and if the community did not pay he threatened to file a complaint.  What could they do.  It must be paid.  The community collected all of their assets together and paid him the rest with interest.  The church treasury was now so broke that not only was there no money existing but the pastor was only paid 30 Forints for his service for the year 1874/5 and the teacher was only paid 30 Forints and 85 Forints was still owed to Anton Kleb. (But in January 1877 it was settled.)

   In the month of May 1875 the community conferred about what should be done about it.  The next four years of depression, following one after the other, not only affected the individual but also the community, especially the last year in which the price of fruit declined. (So even in the "good old days" there was something!)   The material strength was completely weakened.  The teacher's apartment was in such a condition that if there wasn't a good year soon when it could be rebuilt, it threatened to decay.

   They also informed the pastor about this and came to an agreement in the end that it would be some time before they overcame the most difficult - that they would be content with the teacher's sermons, who has to preach every future Sunday and will get 140 Florints for it.  For all of the pastor's usual official duties and giving the sacrament which were performed by the pastor for 60 Forints a year, they were also obliged to pay the usual Stola fee to the pastor.

   In the more difficult times the community was loyal to the pastor and the teacher who encouraged the community to do its best.  And in this difficult time the long cherished desire for a church service every Sunday was fulfilled.

   On the 22nd of August 1875, after 25 years of serving this community, teacher Eduard Schenkenberger was elected 2nd teacher for the Reformed community of Torscha.  Allegedly he was induced to leave the most unhealthy teacher's apartment.


   The community did not "trouble themselves about another teacher" because they also signed a contract with teacher Jakob Knittel for one year in the same month.  Teacher Knittel was only signed on for one year for the time being.  Besides instruction in the school and choirmaster service, he was also entrusted with conducting church services every Sunday, as was his predecessor since May 1875.  "In the month of November a meeting was held by the praiseworthy elders where it was decided, that the community would be content with the sermons of teacher J. Knittel, which through one year from 1 October 1875 to the end of September 1876, a church service would be held on every Sunday and holidays.  That is, he was obliged to preach - for which he received 80 Forints."

   The community must have been satisfied with his services because on the 28th of May 1876 they elected him to be their permanent teacher.

   "In case of previous decisions by the elders, a teachers election was held on the 28th of May 1876 at which the community signed a contract with teacher Jakob Knittel as follows:

   The German Reformed branch community of Feketehegy was obliged to pay the teacher all year:

   1. Free apartment, (cleaned twice a year) consisting of 2 rooms, 1 kitchen,
      1 small room (chamber), 1 stable and attic, then the whole house garden.

   2. From each home, each couple, and each quarter field, per ¼ Pester Metzen fruit, and from
      each house and each couple per 25(xr), 20(xr) more in Austrian currency for each school child.

   3. A cord of hard firewood and a cord in (Relutum?) per 10 Forints in Austrian currency, further
      adequate heating for 1 room and in case of emergency also for a second room (straw).

   4. A Stola fee for a funeral and a wedding, per 35(xr) in Austrian currency.

   On the other hand teacher Jakob Knittel was obliged to loyally and eagerly serve the community in the capacity of teacher and choirmaster.

   The community still had to care for the teacher's apartment which was already old and dilapidated.  Because there was not enough money, some of the elders did not want to start building, but at the community meeting on the 2nd of December 1877 they decided unanimously to build a new building.  This was to be done at the same site where the old apartment stood.  The plan and the cost estimates were completed by building contractor Jakob Kniesel from Crvenka.  He also constructed the building.  The new construction of the small room and the stable was awarded to "local inhabitant Gottfried Gutwein, who was bricklayer by profession."  He used old material to do it.  During the construction the teacher lived in a rented apartment.  The old people understood what was wanted and did the construction without many meetings.  After negotiations for the building contract on the 10th of April, no meeting was held until the 7th of December.  But then it states in the minutes: "The church father announced that the school house building was being finished and was acknowledged by the church elders for good."


   During the time of Rev. Szilady (1874-1889) some of the changes regarding his salary as well as regarding the holding of the church services are recorded.  In 1875 he consented, as we had seen, that the teacher hold the church service on every Sunday and that he receive only 60 Forints for his other official duties.  In May 1876 he explained "in case the bad times and poverty of the community continued in 1876/77 he would serve for 60 Forints.  In the next year, after the treasury of the community had increased some, "he demanded 100 Forints.  He agreed with the elders that the community pay him 80 Florints for 1877/78, but from then on he would be paid 100 Guilders a year.

   However the community always strived to better their economical condition.  For this purpose, after a dispute at the Seniorats' meeting in 1879, "they purchased for their schoolhouse a proper Jogh"  On the occasion of the division of the border meadow in 1875 each house received from the time of settlement a piece of land, 14 square chains and 75 square fathoms large; that was a "Jogh."  The community received 480 Forints for that which was theirs.

   On the 8th of July 1883 the community had about 1000 Florints in cash and borrowed money. 

The pastor now asked again for an increase in salary.  But the community wanted the pastor to serve more often.  Many discussions were held with the elders over various plans that were raised.  On the 14th of April 1884 the community meeting decided "that the pastor had to preach in the German Reformed branch community every Sunday - which had to be left to his assistant to preach."  From then on church service was held from 10 to 11 o'clock, after the Hungarian church service was held.

   But that lasted only for a year because the pastor explained in the March of 1885 that because of "his almost always sickly condition" he could not preach every Sunday anymore or he could leave it to his assistant to preach.  The community assembly decided on the 17th of May in favor of keeping the church services on every Sunday.  On the same day the elders decided that: a) the pastor would preach on one Sunday and the teacher would preach on the other Sunday on the Sundays they usually do it; b) on the three most highly regarded holidays, namely: Christmas, Easter, and Whitsunday, the teacher had to preach on the first holiday and the pastor had to preach on the second holiday; c) and on the other three holidays, the pastor had to preach for the New Year and the Ascension of Christ, and the teacher had to preach on Good Friday."  The salary was as settled upon in 1875: 240 Forints a year for the pastor and 70 Forints a year for the teacher.  This order in holding the church services remained until the end of July 1914.

   During Rev. Szilady's time the community tried a second time to receive their own pastor.  On the 16th of April 1888, on the occasion of the canonical visitation, the pastor announced that the German Reformed branch community had prepared a plan to become independent from the parent community and the pastor's assistant Gustav Juranyi, who had just been employed in the Hungarian community, was elected to be their proper pastor.  Juranyi controlled the Germans very well, for the community members really liked to listen to his sermons.  During earlier times (and also after him) the confirmation classes were always given by the teacher, but because the pastor did not know enough German to do the instruction, Juranyi taught the confirmation classes himself.  Besides that he had been much beloved by the community members.  The Senior had given instructions to the elders an appropriate salary letter approved by the community assembly.  The elders made an appropriate proposal but the community members were not all for it.  Of the 40 votes, 26 were for it, but 14 were against it (22nd of April).  After that the community's request was discussed by the Seniorat's meeting, and on the 14th of May the pastor informed the community that the community's request was turned down "on the grounds that the community treasury still had too little for this undertaking."  The pastor advised to increase the outgoing expenses which "only in this manner, if the community members were prepared . .  . through some years of sacrifice, - it was possible for the community to become independent.  The elders took this advise seriously, made the appropriate decision, but the majority of the community assembly expressed that they were against this proposal.  So at this time everything remained as it was in 1870.


   Rev. Szilady died on the 1st of April 1889.  Rev. Philipp Tiefenthäler from Old Sivatz, a boyfriend of the deceased, held the eulogy in the church of the German Reformed community. - On the 1st of September the Hungarian parent community unanimously elected Rev. Alexander Toth to be their preacher.  He introduced himself to the elders of the German community on the 22nd of September.  "Those of the Hungarian congregation elected the highly esteemed Rev. Toth. Sandor held a small discussion on the occasion of this meeting with the German elders concerning the relationship between him and the German Reformed branch congregation, where he prepared to explain the functions as the deceased pastor had performed for them, also about receiving the same pay; only the German branch community preferred to be patient with him for a short time since he needed a little practice in the German language so he could strive to satisfy the German community as soon as possible.  But until then they preferred to content themselves with the teacher's sermon."  This proposal the elders approved.

With Rev. Toth's arrival begins two decades in the history of the community when not much is reported.  Community life went about its usual way.  Teacher Knittel continued to serve in the community with greater diligence and resolution until 1910.  For it he was paid so much attention that sometimes to cover his salary the community had to do without to make concessions to Teacher Jakob Knittel him. 

      After 35 years of faithful service teacher Knittel requested his pension from the teaching ministry in the summer of 1910.  Through the new situation forming it was again possible to accept a plan that had already been considered for 40 years.  On the 7th of August there was another community assembly.  "The community voted unanimously for the acceptance of a teacher and if possible a German pastor's assistant which the community also preferred to perform the church service every Sunday."  The pastor and the church father spoke to the bishop about a pastor's assistant, but received the answer "that under no condition were they to have such an assistant.  "After that the teacher Daniel Mengel from Old Werbaß, who received his diploma in the same year, who was requested by some elders of the community, announced he was looking for a teaching position in this community.  Until the 1st of November teacher Mengel instructed as teacher Knittel's substitute; then when Knittel's pension came through he was finally elected.  But already on the 14th of November he resigned from his position and after that he was appointed to a state teacher's position in Hodmezövasarhely.  Until the election of another teacher, teacher Knittel was requested to holds classes temporarily.  From then to the election of a new teacher the terms were settled: he must be a certified teacher, he must be able to play the organ, he must have a complete mastery of the German language, and he must be of the Reformed denomination.


   On the 29th of December 1910 the elders unanimously elected Nikolaus Nadich, teacher from Schidski Banovci, to be their teacher.  On the 8th of January the community assembly unanimously accepted a new salary letter.  After that the teacher was promised the following salary: apartment with side building and garden, 800 Kronen a year by the community, 182 Kronen from state aid, the staid old age allowance from the state, use of half of the state tree nursery, and (Stolarien?) of about 18 Kronen.  The duties were: instruction in the public school and adult education, service as choirmaster and organist, director of singing at all community meetings, director of the choir, and so one exists, perform the work of secretary.  For his service in preaching he received 340 Kronen and Stolarien: for it he has to give the confirmation classes, and at large holidays (feast days) and every second Sunday he is to hold church service.

   Teacher Nadich served in the community for three and a half years.  During his time the construction of the new school was begun.  The community already requested the higher church officials to establish a second teaching position in 1891, 1893, and 1905 because after that the school census was too great.  (At the time this always exceeded 100!)  The community rejected this legitimate request with the reason that they could not raise the necessary funds.  On the 20th of April 1913  church father Johann Weißmann proposed building the second school.  The construction was to begin in the spring of 1914, but to pay for it all, preparations were made to increase church taxes.  The elders as well as the community assembly voted for it.  In November the elders accepted the cost estimate, a salary letter for second teacher was written up and decided on, and a salary supplement for the second teacher and also financial aid for the construction were requested from the state.  In December it was also used to obtain the building materials.  In 1914 the construction was started and finished.  It cost about 6000 Kronen.

   The second school could not be opened though because in 1914 the great World War broke out.  With so many sons of the community teacher Nadich also had to march off to war.  He was called up on the 27th of July and on the 20th of October he left.  Then the community had to overcome some difficulties so church service and lessons could be held regularly.  From then on, instead of every second Sunday, Rev. Toth held church service every Sunday.  The Hungarian parent community placed teacher Ferenc Takacs at the disposal of the German Reformed branch community without any demands to be teacher Nadich's substitute.  Until 1919 he also served as choirmaster.  Subsequently the pastor and the teacher Takacs were given a certain fee of 200 - 100 Kronen from year to year by the elders for their work.

   But after that the parent community for the school year 1915-1916 could no longer do without  teacher Takacs, so the elders had to employ another teacher and chose Gisella Bendek to be substitute teacher.  In July 1916 she resigned, so the elders appointed Ilona Modij, but she also resigned  afterwards and the elders instructed church father Jakob Gutwein to ask the teacher Helena Schmidt from Palanka to take over service in this community but he had no success.

After the pastor's position itself had gone through some changes the community finally gained teacher Terez Jonas.  But she stayed only until the end of January 1917.  What difficulties the elders had led to the elders' decision on the 28th of January 1917 where the pastor was instructed that "first of all he had to submit a request to the Ministry of Education and Arts for a state teacher and if he had no success, secondly he should request the former Bacsfeketehegy teacher Jakob Knittel to take on the substitute position together with a monthly salary of 150 Kronen.  And if this was also unsuccessful, thirdly he should request for the submission of a student to the teachers' college.  But a fourth solution was found.  On the recommendation of the bishop the elders employed the certified kindergarten teacher Katherina Jung.  She served from the 11th of February to the 31st of August 1917.  But the elders really wanted to employ a permanent teacher because the frequent change and the lack of knowledge of Germans was a disadvantage for most of these teachers to work in the school.  After more unsuccessful attempts, the community again received a teacher from the parent community.  Teacher Ester Szücs instructed the four lower classes, while grades 5 and 6 went to the school in the Hungarian parent community.  The salary for teacher Szücs was paid half by the parent community and half by the branch community.  However she could not speak German so she could not take over the religious instruction.  For the year 1918-1919 the elders had the retired Evangelical-Lutheran teacher Wilhelm Pratscher employed daily from 11 to 12 o'clock to teach religion and church singing to all six classes for about a year's salary of 400 Kronen.

   On the 1st of June 1919 teacher Friedrich Schmidt from Novi Vrbas was on loan for 15 months but finally he was appointed to the school by the community with the following salary: 1800 Kronen a year, then a 900 Kronen cost of living allowance, 340 Kronen for sermon and choirmaster service, 120 Kronen for his work with adult education, and a free living room.

   Since September 1919 the elders often had to discuss the question of school because the state placed different new demands on them.  The state orders had the goal to nationalize the church (parochial) schools.  In this relevant matter the elders answered that the community can only promise their teacher the legitimate salary and their school can obtain it if they can also receive additional state aid, as they have so far.

   On the 26th of September the general assembly "stated with regrets" that the congregation was not capable of acquiring the school on its own strength.  For this reason the community handed the school over to the state, but the property rights of the school building and the remaining real estate remained with the community."  So the school was nationalized and from then on the teacher was paid by the state, but the teacher also had to serve as choirmaster and secretary for which the general assembly promised to pay him a salary of 2400 Kronen a year on the 23rd of January 1921.

   The community had lost much with their school.  However they should probably also because of it - on the other hand gain what was their long cherished desire: that they could become independent from the parent community.

[Published at 2004 by Jody McKim Pharr]

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