"History is the memory of things said and done."
 - Carl L. Becker

Danube Swabian History
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Central Civilian Internment and Labor Camps
In the Yugoslavian Banat

Milchhalle at Gross-Kikinda/Kikinda - Already by the middle of October 1944, immediately after the take-over by the Russians and partisans, it became a torture and murder camp for over 1,000 defenseless civilians. Subsequently, it was the central camp for the northern part of the Banat until the end of 1946.

Alte Mühle at Gross-Betschkerek/Zrenjanin - It was probably the most gruesome execution camp for the Germans during the bloody autumn 1944 and then used as a central camp until May 1947.

Stoikowitch-Telep at Werschetz/Vrsac - The town Werschetz, in the South-Banat was also notorious for the murders committed there. After the killing-orgies of the "bloody autumn 1944" came to an end, it served as a central camp.

Stockhaus at Weisskirchen/Bela Crkva - This building too, was used for the torture and executions of hundreds of victims before it was transformed into a Southeast central camp of the Banat.

Schuschara/Susara - On December 24, 1944, the whole village was declared a central camp for the German civilians of the surrounding area. For a time, children, old and ill civilians were housed there as well. It existed until spring 1947.

Karlsdorf/Banatski Karlovac - Established April 27, 1945; it also contained children and old people until October 1945, when they were transferred to the liquidation camp Rudolfsgnad. At Karlsdorf 1,000 occupants, including 400 documented by name, died of starvation.

Fischplatz at Pantschowa/Pancevo - This camp was established November 1944 and dissolved February 22, 1948. The conditions in the overcrowded barracks were horrible and led to diseases and epidemics. The commander, a cruel female named Radojka, indulged in torturing the defenseless victims.

Banat-Brestowatz/Banatski Brestovac - November 1944 - early 1948. This camp contained, among many others, several thousand inhabitants of the city of Pantschowa, unable to work, until October 1945, when they were shipped to the liquidation camp Rudolfsgnad.

Seidenfabrik at Kubin/Kovin - Towards the end of 1944, after termination of the murderous "Aktion Intelligenzija," this silk spinning mill was made into the central camp for the surrounding communities. It contained about 600 detainees.

Mramorak - By the end of April 1945, all those inhabitants of Mramorak not yet interned, were put into several houses, together with children, ill and old people from the surrounding area. Beginning November 1945, they were all shipped to the liquidation camp Rudolfsgnad.

Children's camp in the Banat:

  • Banatsko Novo Selo (Banater Neudorf)

  • Debeljaca (Debeljatscha)

  • Jabuka (Apfeldorf)

  • Kacarevo, vorh.Kraljevicevo (Franzfeld)

  • Vlajkovac (Wlajkowatz)

Sick Patient Camps in Banat:

  • Banatski Karlovac (Karlsdorf)

  • Ravni Topolovac, vorh.Banatski Topoloyac (Kathreinfeld; Katarina)

  • Zitiste, vorh. Begejski Sveti Djuradj (St.Georgen)

True Stories . . .

Genocide, Horror & Survival by John Mueller - A most descriptive first-hand account of a Banater from Mastort who suffered and survived Tito's concentration and extermination camps from 1944 to 1948.

 


Bibliography

- GENOCIDE of the Ethnic Germans in Yugoslavia 1944-1948. Published by the Danube Swabian Association of the USA, 2001. ISBN 0-9710341-0-9

- Volume III of the documentation Leidensweg der Deutschen im kommunistischen Jugoslawien, 1995; respectively in the Weissbuch der Deutschen aus Jugoslawien. (The Tragedy of the Ethnic Germans in Yugoslavia).

[Published at dvhh.org by Jody McKim, May 12, 2010]