Banat | Village Coordinator: Nick Tullius


Banat Timeline
Compiled by Nick Tullius

1716 Banat under Turkish occupation has a population of about 80,000 (others claim up to 300,000).  Austrian general Prince Eugene of Savoy wins battle of Peterwardein & occupies fortress Temeswar. 
1718 Treaty of Passarowitz - Turks relinquish Banat; count Mercy takes over administration. Banat established as 'Crown Domain' (province of Austria) with Temeswar as provincial capital. German municipal administration established in Temeswar.
1722-1726 First Swabian Settlement under Karl VI brings some 15,000   German settlers to Hungary.
1750 Piarist high school in Neusanktanna opens; moves to Temeswar in 1789.
1763-1771 Second Swabian Settlement under Maria Theresia brings 45,000 German settlers to Hungary.
1775 Teachers college opens in Temeswar.
1778 Maria Theresia changes status of Banat from Austrian province to   Hungarian 'comitat'. There are 80 German schools in the Banat.
1784 Joseph II establishes German as official language of administration.
1784-1787 Third Swabian Settlement under Joseph II brings 6000 German families to the Banat.
1789 End of government-supported settlement; some 150,000 German settlers in Hungary, about      60,000 in the Banat.
1802   650 schools in the Banat.  
1806   First Roman-Catholic theological seminary in Temeswar, lasted until 1950).
1810   First choir in Banat set up in Lugosch.  
1815   First public library in a Hungarian city set up in Temeswar.  
1817   Theatre in Arad is built – oldest theater building still operating. 
1819   Busiasch is declared spa.  
1819 First vaccination against smallpox in Central Europe administrated in Temeswar 
1820-1830   Colonization of Banater Bergland. 
1823.11.03   Janos Bolyai mentions discovery of the principles of non-Euclidean geometry in a letter from Temeswar..  
1823.11.25   Johanna vonGreth, the first love of Ludwig van Beethoven is dying in Temeswar. 
1840 Building the village of Neusiedl concludes colonization of the Banat.
1841.02.11   First performance of the opera “Anna Bolena” by Giacomo Donizetti in Temeswar.  
1846   First institution of higher education in Temeswar - a law faculty
1846.04.06   First savings bank set up in Temeswar.
1846   Franz Liszt gives three concerts in the Temeswar theater hall.  
1847   Temeswar has 22.560 inhabitants. .Johann Strauss Jr. and his orchestra perform in Temeswar.
1847.02.05   Ether used as anaesthetic at the Temeswar military hospital. 
1848.03.   Revolution in Vienna and Budapest; public demonstrations in front of Temeswar city hall. Parade Square is renamed Liberty Square.  
1848.10.10   Commanding general Georg von Rukavina declares Temeswar a fortress.  
1849  Fortress Temeswar is attacked by revolutionary Hungarian troops led by general Vécsey.
1849.08.09   Hungarian revolutionary army is defeated on the battlefield between Neubeschenova, Sanktandreas and Kleinbetschkerek. Austrian general Julius Haynau enters Temeswar.  
1849.10.2   “Petition von Bogarosch”: - first recorded political expression of Banat Swabians. A second petition was elaborated a month later in Hatzfeld. No answer was ever received from Vienna.
1849   Temeswar is the capital of the “Serbische Wojwodina und Temescher Banat” (Serbian Voivodina and Temesch Banat), comprising the counties of: Temesch, Torontal, Karasch-Severin, Bács-Bodrog, Srem. Thus the Banat is once again ruled directly by the imperial administration in Vienna.  
1850   First postal stamps used in Banat.
1850 First Gewerbe Kammer (Chamber of Commerce) set up in Temeswar.  
1851   First alcohol plant established in Arad. First railway rails produced in Reschitza.  
1851.12.31   Constitution of March 1849 is abolished; neo-absolutist regime established by ‘Imperial Patent’. 
1853   Abolition of serfdom by imperial decree extended to the Banat.
1853   First monography of Temeswar “Monographie der königlichen Freistadt Temeswar” written by Johann Preyer, mayor of Temeswar.  
1854.04.24   First telegraph line between Temeswar and Vienna is inaugurated.  
1854.08.20   First mountain railroad (Kohlenbahn) (second in Europe) Lisava-Orawitza-Jassenowa-Basiasch (78.5 km).
1855.02.09   Giuseppe Verdi’s opera “La Traviata” opened in Temeswar.  
1857.11.15   First railway across the Banat plain: Szeged-Kikinda-Hatzfeld-Temeswar (112 km). Temeswar to Budapest takes 26 hours; Temeswar to Vienna 36 hours. 
1857.11.01   Gas lighting installed in Temeswar.
1858   Temeswar-Schebel-Wojtek-Stamora Moravitza-Jassenowa railroad (94 km).  
1860 Banat becomes formally a part of Hungary (from 1868 within the dual Austro-Hungarian Monarchy).
1861 Building of the Orawitza-Lisava-Steierdorf railway (33.4 km) with 14 tunnels and 10 viaducts.
1863   Arad-Grosswardein railroad line is built. First brick and tile plant in the Banat is set up in Hatzfeld.
1865.02.24   First performance of “Faust” by Gounod in Temeswar.  
1866.01.13   First performance of “Tannhäuser” by Richard Wagner in Temeswar 
1867   A brick plant is operating in Temeswar.  
1867 Ausgleich: the dual Austro-Hungarian monarchy is formed. First bank in Hatzfeld.  
1869.07.08   First horse-drawn streetcar in Temeswar (6.6 km of track)
1870   Railroad linking Großsanktnikolaus to Valkan and with another link to Großbetschkerek and Szegedin.
1870-1871   Bem bridge, the first metal bridge, built in Temeswar across Bega Canal.
1871 Temeswar-Arad railway inaugurated. 
1871 Philharmonic Society of Temeswar. 
1872   Flooding; ferries operate between Kleinbetschkerek and Billed.  
1872   Military border region abolished.  
1872-1874   First three locomotives in Hungary manufactured in Reschitza.
1874   Meteorology station opened in Temeswar .  
1875   Hatzfeld gets a voluntary fire brigade.
1875 New theater inaugurated in Temeswar.
1876 Metric system of measurement introduced in the Banat.
1876 Temeswar-Lugosch-Karansebesch railway inaugurated.
1878 Karansebesch-Orschowa railway inaugurated.
1879   First telephone system in Temeswar  with 52 subscribers (Leyritz).
1879 Bucharest linked by railway through Temeswar-Budapest-Vienna to Paris. Recital of Johannes Brahms and Joseph Joachim in Temeswar.
1881   Hungarian Parliament issues a law limiting activity of emigration agents.
1881.03.25   Composer and pianist Bela Bartok born in Großsanktnikolaus. Emigrates in the USA in 1940  (+ 26.09.1945 New York).
1881 Construction of the Notre Dame educational complex and monastery in the Josefstadt district.
1882 The railroads Großsanknikolaus - Temeswar and Großsanknikolaus - Arad are built.
1883 New Orient Express train passes trough Banat: Szeged-Kikinda-Hatzfeld-Temeswar-Karansebesch-Orschowa.
1884 Electric street lighting (731 lamps) installed in Temeswar - first in continental Europe.
1885 First museum in Temeswar.  
1886 Temeswar telephone network has 90 subscribers and 201,480 m of lines.
1886 Ambulance service established in Temeswar.
1887 Temeswar-Kreutzstätten railroad inaugurated.
1887.04.01   Poet Peter Jung is born in Hatzfeld (+24.06.1966 in Hatzfeld).  
1888 Perjamosch-Warjasch railway inaugurated.
1890   There are 253 postal offices and 48 telegraph offices in the Banat (Temesch 78-18; Torontal 116-19; Karasch-Severin 61-11)
1891 First permanent museum opened in Temeswar.
1893 Temeswar telephone network goes long distance by extention to Arad-Szeged-Budapest.
1895 Temeswar-Lowrin-Großsanktnikolaus-Tschanad railway inaugurated.
1896 German theatre in Temeswar is closed down. Temeswar telephone network has more than 2000 subscribers. Telephone networks are introduced also in Werschetz, Pantschowa and Großbetschkerek.
1897 First electric railroad between Arad-Paulisch (58 km).  
1898 Law that all towns and villages in Hungary must have Hungarian names.
1899-1913 About 92,000 Swabians immigrate to America. Bruno Walter named conductor of Temeswar theatre orchestra.
1899 Electric streetcars introduced in Temeswar (10.7 km).
1904.06.02  Johnny Weissmuller born in Freidorf/Temeswar.
1907 Ungarländische Deutsche Volkspartei (German Popular Party of Hungary) established; president is lawyer Ludwig Kremling.
1908 All public congregations by the German Popular Party banned by police. First permanent cinema opens in Temeswar.
1908-1909  New church, school and monastery of the Piarist community in Temeswar. 
1910-1912  Lloyd Palace and other stately buildings around Opera Square form the Temeswar “Corso”.
1913-1914  Due to ongoing magyarization, only 34 German-language schools remain in Banat.
1918.10.31  Banat revolution & proclamation of the Banat Republic by Otto Roth.
1918.11.15  Serbian army occupies Banat and Temeswar.
1918.12.01 Resolution of Alba Iulia (Karlstadt) provides for minorities to use of their language in education, administration, and justice; proportional representation in political life.
1918.12.08  National assembly of the Swabians from 138 villages in Temeswar adopts the “Swabian Manifest”.
1918 Temeswar has 60.000 inhabitants, seven hospitals with 445 beds, 22 doctors, 48 nurses.
1919 Banat Swabians divided: (1) followers of Reinhold Heegn are for joining Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes; (2) “moderates” of Kaspar Muth and Franz Blaskovics are for an autonomous Banat Republic as part of Hungary or as Hungarian/French protectorate; (3) “radicals” lead by Viktor Orendi-Hommenau, Andreas Dammang, Johann Tengler, Josef Gabriel, Johann Röser are for union with the Romania.
1919.08.10  Deutsche Volkspartei at meeting of 1000 Swabians delegates from 33 villages issues resolution supporting integrity of Banat and union with Romania.
1919.08.19  Swabian delegation meeting in Paris with members of the Council of Ten, organ of the Peace Conference; first international presence of Banat Swabians.
1919 2/3 of Banat is united with Romania and 1/3 with the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes.
1920.06.04  Trianon Treaty – Hungary looses 2/3 of its territory. 
1920.11.02  Temeswar’s theater burns down.
1920.11.03  Technical universirty ‘Polytechnic School’ opens in Temeswar.
1921 George Enescu gives his first concerts in Temeswar.
1921 Josef Linster [1889-1954] composes the Swabians Hymn using Peter Jung’s poem Mein Heimatland published on 11.09.1921 in Hatzfelder Zeitung.
1921 Two Swabians parties merge to form the “Deutsch-Schwäbische Volksgemeinschaft”. 
1923.03.12  Augustin Pacha is appointed apostolic administrator of the Roman-Catholic Diocese of Tschanad.
1926 Streetcar enterprise has 35 cars and 25 km of rails with 5 branch lines. 
1926.08.26  Banatia, the largest German educational institution in eastern central Europe, is officially inaugurated. 
1929-1930  Construction of the “Capitol” cinema in Temeswar.
1930 The population of Banat is 941,521: 226,776 Swabians, 97,729 Hungarians, and 509,187 Romanians.
1930.06.05  Temeswar Roman-Catholic Diocese established with. Dr. Augustin Pacha as first bishop. 
1938 Temeswar engineer Corneliu Miklosi built the first railway welding machine of the world.
1940.09 Andreas Schmidt named by Berlin as leader of the German Ethnic Group in Romania.
1941 About 310.000 Swabians live in the Banat.
1942.11.15  Seismic station established in Temeswar. 
1943.05 Hitler–Antonescu agreement: ethnic German men can join either the Romanian army or the German army. By year end 54,000 had joined the Waffen SS. 
1944.06.16 Temeswar is bombed for the first time by the British air force. 
1944.07.03  Temeswar is bombed by the American air force.
1944.09.12  First Red Army troops enter Temeswar. 
1944 08 About 15,000 Banat Swabians flee toward Germany. 
1945.01.06 Deportation in Russia: some 45,000 Swabian men and women are deported to URSS; about 7000 of them loose their lives; the rest are released in 1950.
1945.10.18  Expropriation of Swabian property: land, houses, machines, tools, animals….
1946 Temeswar museum is moving in the Huniade Castle. 
1946.03._  Temeswar Opera official inauguration takes place on 27.04.1947 with a performance of “Aida” by G. Verdi. 
1946.08._  Medical Institute of Temeswar opens in the Banatia building. 
1948 Pedagogic Institute opens in Temeswar; becomes a university in 1962. 
1948.06.11  Nationalization of the large and small enterprises, banks, shops, and transportation means. 
1948 Collectivisation: villagers are enrolled as workers on collective farms.
1950 Freidorf becomes Temeswar’s seventh district. 
1951.06.18 Deportation to the Baragan: some 40,000 Swabians are among those deported to ensure ‘security of border with Yugoslavia’. 
1953 Temeswar is the only European city with 3 state theaters that stage plays in 3 languages: Romanian, Hungarian and German. 
1961-1965  Construction of the Western University in Temeswar.
1970-1984  Construction of the Agronomic Institute in Temeswar. 
1974-1976  Construction of the Electrotechnical Faculty in Temeswar. 
1977 About 159.000 Swabians live in the Banat. 
1978 Agreement between Romania and West Germany regarding family reunification. 
1980-1982  Construction of the Civil Engineering Faculty. 
1989 About 90.000 Swabians live in the Banat. 
1989.12.17  ‘Bloody Sunday’ in Temeswar: military opens fire on anti-Ceausescu demonstrators.
1989.12.20  Temeswar is declared a “free city”. 
1989.12.22  Ceausescu regime ends. 
1990.03.03  Msgr. Sebastian Kraeuter is appointed bishop of the Roman-Catholic Diocese of Temeswar. 
1992 About 30.000 Swabians live in the Banat.
1996.09.16  Prime ministers of Hungary and Romania sign the Romanian-Hungarian Treaty at Temeswar.
2000 Population of Temeswar is 450,000. 

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Last updated: 26 Aug 2020