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Histoire de l'Autriche-Hongrie
By Louis Léger, 1879

A HISTORY AUSTRIA-HUNGARY FROM THE EARLIEST TIME TO THE YEAR 1889

 

(1843–1923)
 French writer & pioneer in Slavic studies.

Translated from French: "Histoire de l'Autriche-Hongrie"
by Mrs. Birkbeck Hill; with a Preface by Edward A. Freeman.
Published by G.P. Putnam's sons, 1889 - 672 pages.

DVHH Publisher Note: The contents of this book may be useful to the Donauschwaben researcher, as it touches on many historical eras related to our ancestors history in Austria-Hungary; and the contents are in chronological order. The below Table of Contents links go directly to a digitalized pages scanned by Google. --When you get to your page, click on "Page images" to the right & top corner of the text box, to get the original scanned book image, where there are no electronic errors. The text version was scanned using a OCR (optical character recognition) program, which sometimes causes characters to be nonsense.
Also see:
Translator Note | Works by Louis Léger

 

Table of Contents

 PAGE

 

Preface v

Translator's Preface xx

 

Bibliography For The Use Of Students - xxi Rules For Pronunciation xxii

 

 

CHAPTER I

The Austro-hungarian State And Its Constituent ElementS

How the Austro-Hungarian State was formed Austro-Hungary has neither geographical nor natural unity, nor natural frontiers

3

Statistics of the various nationalities

5

Preponderance falsely attributed to the Germans; their distribution among the various provinces

6

The Magyars, the Slavs, and the Latins

7

Persistency and vitality of the national languages in Bohemia and Hungary

9

 

CHAPTER II

Primitive Times—The Barbarians—The Roman Rule — German Invasions

11

Pre-historic times—Celts and Illyrians—Conquest by Rome

11

The Dacians—The Marcomanni in Bohemia—Organization of the Roman conquest

14

The Goths—Diocletian and Christianity

17

The Huns—Attila—The Lombards

21

 

CHAPTER III

 

The Migrations Of The Slavs Origin of the Slav race—The Chekhs—The Slavs of the Danube

25

The Slavs and the Avars—Samo (627-662)

27

The Servians and Croatians (634-638)

30

Manners, customs, and religion of the Slavs

33

 

CHAPTER IV

 

Moravia And The Slav Apostles

39

The Chekhs, Moravians, and Carinthians—Legendary rise of Bohemia

39

Moravia—Rostislav (846)—Cyril and Methodius (863-885)—The Slav Church

41

Svatopluk—The ruin of Moravia and of the Slav Church (870-907)

45

The Slovenes—The Croats under a national dynasty (780-1090)

 51

 

CHAPTER V

 

Formation Of The Magyar State The Magyars—Their origin and arrival in the valley of the Danube —Their invasions (892-955)

57

Manneis and religion of the Pagan Magyars

61

The first princes of the dynasty of Arpad—Christian Hungary—St Stephen (997-1038)

64

The laws of St Stephen

67

 

CHAPTER VI

 

Hungary Under The Successors Of St Stephen; The first successors of St Stephen—Ladislas the Holy (1077-1095)

71

Koloman (1095-1114)—Croatia united to Hungary (1102)—German colonies—Wars with Galicia and Venice

74

Andrew II (1205-1235)—The Golden Bull

79

Struggles against the Mongols (1239-1241) and the House of Austria —Last kings of the race of Arpad (1235-1301)

83

Progress of civilization

87

   
CHAPTER VII  

Bohemia Under The Earlier Premyslides - The first Christian princes—St  Adalbert (874-997)

98

Bretislav and the institution of primogeniture (1037-1055)—Vratislav first king of Bohemia (1061-1092)

98

Premysl Otokar I, hereditary king (1197-1230)—Vacslav I (1230- 1253)—Invasion by the Tartars (1242)

98

Premysl Otokar II (1250-1278)—Struggle against Rudolf of Habsburg—Glory and decay of Bohemia -Humiliation and death of Premysl Otokar II (1278)

108

 

CHAPTER VIII

 

The Later Premyslides - The later Premyslides—Vacslav II king of Bohemia and Poland (1278-1305)—Vacslav III (1305-1306)

 112

Bohemia under the Premyslides—Bohemia and the Empire

119

Bohemian institutions—German colonies

122

Religion—Arts—Civilization

124

 

CHAPTER IX

The Early History Of The Austrian GroutThe House Of Babenberg (973-1246) - The Eastern March—The first Babenbergs—Henry Iasomirgott (973-" 77)

127

Leopold V (1198-1230)—Frederick the Fiyhter (1230-1246) — Acquisition of Styria and part of Carnicla

132

The Laws of Austria under the Babenberg—Tbe Lamleshoheit— The towns—Literature

136

 

CHAPTER X

The Austrian Group Under The First Habsburgs (1273-1493)

141

Rudolf I invests his sons with Austria and Styria (1273-1298)— Frederick the Handsome (1330-1358)—Acquisition of Carinthia

141

Rudolf IV (1358-1365)—The Privilegium Magus—Acquisition of Tyrol (1363)—Dismemberment of Austria (1379)

145

Albertine and Leopoldine branches (1379-1457)

149

Frederick of the Empty Purse (1406-1439)

151

Frederick V, emperor (1440-1493)

152

 

CHAPTER XI

 

Bohemia Under The House Of Luxemburg—John Hus (1310-1415) - John of Luxemburg (1310-1346)—Annexation of Lusatia and Silesia

155

Charles IV (1346-1378)—Prosperity of the kingdom—The Golden Bull

161

Vacslav IV (1378-1419)—Revolts of the nobles—Religious troubles

164

John Hus (1369-1415)—The Council of Constance (1415)

169

 

CHAPTER XII

 

Bohemia And The Hussite Wars - Formation of the sects of the Utraquists and Taborites (1415-1419)

176

Beginning of the struggle—Sigismund (1419-1437)—John Zizka (1420)

180

Negotiations with Poland—Sigismund Korybutowicz (1420)—The Four Articles—Death of Zizka (1424)

185

Procopius the Great—Victory of Ousti (1427)—Hussite invasion of Hungary and Germany (1424-1431)

189

Council of Basle (1431)—Anarchy in Bohemia—Battle of Lipany (1434)

194

The Compactata (1436)—The result of the Hussite wars—Death of Sigismund (1437)

198

 

CHAPTER XIII

Bohemia Under George Of Podiebrad (1437-1471)—The Jagellon Dynasty (1471-1526)

203

Albert of Austria (1438-1439)—Vladislav the Posthumous (1439- 1447)—George of Podiebrad (1444)

203

The reign of George of Podiebrad (1457-1471)—Bohemia at peace

207

Wladyslaw Jagiello (1471-1516)—Increased power of the nobles

213

Louis (1516-1526)—The Reformation of Luther in Bohemia

215

 

CHAPTER XIV

 

Hungary Under The House Of Anjou (1310-1388)— The Elective Monarchy (1388-1444) - Charles Robert of Anjou (1310-1342)

218

Louis the Great (1342-1382)—The Hungarians in Italy—Wars with Venice and Naples

220

State of Hungary under the House of Anjou

223

Sigismund of Luxemburg (1382-1437)

225

Albert of Austria—Wlaydslaw Jagiello (1438-1444)

229

 

CHAPTER XV

 

John Hunyady—Mathias Corvinus—The Jagellons (1444-1526) - Ladislas the Posthumous—John Hunyady governor of the kingdom

232

Mathias Corvinus (1458-1490)—War with Bohemia and Turkey

236

Hungary under Mathias Corvinus

242

Wladyslaw II (1490-1516)—Verboczy—Revolt of the Kurucs (1514)

244

Louis II (1516-1526)—Loss of Belgrade (1521)—Battle of Mohacs (1526)

248

 

CHAPTER XVI

The Austrian Emperors

251

Maximilian I (1493-1519)—The Austrian marriages - Ferdinand I 1519- 1564)—The Reformation in Austria Maximilian II (1564-1576)

259

Rudolf II (1576-1611)—The Counter-Reformation in the Austrian states

261

Mathias (1612-1619)—Ferdinand II (1619-1637)—Ferdinand III (1637-1657)—Influence of the Jesuits

263

Leopold I (1657-1705)—Siege of Vienna—Sobieski (1683)

266

Austria under Leopold I—Army—Finances

271

Administration—Legislation—Literature

275

Joseph I (1705-1711)—Charles VI (1711-1740)—The Pragmatic Sanction

277

 

CHAPTER XVII

Bohemia Under The First Austrian Kings (1526-1620) - Ferdinand I  (1526-1564) — Growth of the royal power — The monarchy becomes hereditary

286

Revolts and persecutions of the Protestants—Destruction of the municipal franchises

286

Maximilian II (1564-1576)—Rudolf II (1576-1612)—Wars with Mathias and the Utraquists

289

Mathias (1612-1619)—The defenestration at Prague (1618)

292

Bohemia in revolt—The Thirty Directors

296

 

CHAPTER XVIII

Bohemia Conquered (1619-1740) - Ferdinand II (1619-1637)

298

Battle of the White Mountain (1620)—Political and religious reaction (1620-1627)

300

The Thirty Years' War—Wallenstein—The Swedes in Bohemia (1634-1648)

306

Decay of Bohemia in the 17th and 18th centuries

310

 

CHAPTER XIX

The Dismemberment Of Hungary (1526-1629) - Ferdinand I and Szapolyai (1526-1540)—The Turks in Hungary (1529-1562)

314

Martinuzzi—The Turkish rule 318

The Reformation in Hungary—Rudolf (1576-1612)

322

The Transylvanian princes—Gabriel Bethlen (1613-1629)

325

 

CHAPTER XX

Hungary In Revolt And Hungary Reconciled (1629-1740)

331

The Rakoczy family in Transylvania—Leopold I in Hungary (1629-1705)

331

Expulsion of the Turks

337

Francis Rackoczy (1700-1711)

338

Hungary reconciled—The Treaty of Passarowitz (1718)

341

The Servian colonists—The military frontiers—The Treaty of Belgrade (1739)

343

 

CHAPTER XXI

Maria Theresa (1740-1780) - War of the Austrian succession—Loss of Silesia—Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748)

348

Kaunitz—The French alliance—The Seven Years' War (1756-1763)

352

Partition of Poland—Acquisition of Galicia (1772)

356

Acquisition of Bukovina (1775)—War of the Bavarian Succession (1779)

301

 

CHAPTER XXII

Bohemia, Hungary, And Austria Under Maria Theresa - Bohemia

364

Hungary—"Moriamur pro rege nostro"

366

The peasant question—The military frontiers

370

Reforms in administration and education

373

Finance—Trade—The army

379

 

CHAPTER XXIII

Joseph II (1780-1790) - Character of Joseph II

382

Church reforms

384

Administrative, judicial, and economical reforms

388

Foreign policy—The Furstenbund (1785)—Revolt of the Netherlands —War with Turkey (1788)

391

Hungary and Bohemia in Joseph's reign

394

Leopold II (1790-1792)

398

 

CHAPTER XXIV

 

Francis II (1792-1835)—Wars Against The Revolution - Austria in 1792

401

Loss of Belgium—Acquisition of Western Galicia (1791-1795)

404

Loss of Lombardy—Acquisition of Venice and Dalmatia (1797)

406

Marengo—Treaty of Luneville (1801)

410

Austria after the Peace of Luneville

414

 

CHAPTER XXV

 

Francis II—Wars Against Napoleon To The Treaty Of SCHONBRUNN (180I-1809) - Francis II, emperor of Austria (1804)

420

New war against Napoleon—Treaty of Pressburg (1805)

423

Surrender by Francis II of the title of Roman Emperor (1806)

428

Campaign of 1809—Insurrection in Tyrol

431

Aspern and Wagram—Treaty of Schbnbrunn (1809)

434

The French in the Illyrian provinces

438

 

CHAPTER XXVI

Francis II—Austria After The Peace Of Schonbrunn (1809-1815) - Alliance with Napoleon

442

Russian campaign—Reaction against Napoleon—Austria in alliance with his enemies (1813)

445

Campaign of 1813

451

Battle of Leipzig (1813)—The Austrians in Paris

454

The Congress of Vienna (1814-1815)

458

Austria after the Treaty of Vienna

462

Metternich

466

Austria at the head of the reaction in Europe—Meetings of Congress

469

The Eastern Question (1820-1829)

471

Polish, Italian, and German affairs

476

 

CHAPTER XXVIII

 

Hungary And The Slav Countries (1790-1835) - Hungary from 1790-1815

481

Development of public spirit in Hungary—The Diet of 1825—Szechenyi, Deak, Kossuth

491

Revival of the Slavs—Bohemia—Kollar

495

The Southern Slavs—Ljudevit Gaj—Panslavism

500

 

CHAPTER XXIX

 

Ferdinand IV—Austria On The Eve Of The Revolution (1835-1848) - The Staats-conferenz

504

Polish affairs — Occupation of Cracow — The Galician massacres(1846)

506

Progress of public opinion—The Bohemian Diet—Havlicek

510

Public opinion in Hungary—The Magyars and Slavism

514

The races in Hungary

519

Public opinion in Vienna

521

 

CHAPTER XXX

The Revolution Of 1848 - Fall of Metternich—The first Austrian constitution

524

Concessions to Bohemia—Palacky and the Frankfort parliament

527

The Slav congress at Prague

529

Galicia and Italy

531

 

CHAPTER XXXI

The Hungarian Revolution

533

The first Hungarian ministry—The 15th of March—The Croats and Servians

533

Jelacic

535

The War

537

The Russian intervention

539

 

CHAPTER XXXII

The Revolution In Vienna - The parliament of Vienna—The October Days—Repression

542

The Diet of Kromerice—Abdication of Ferdinand IV

546

 

CHAPTER XXXIII

 

Francis JosephThe Reactionary Period - The new constitution (March 4th, 1849)

548

The reactionary period (1850-1860)—The Concordat (1855)

552

Austria and Germany—The Crimean War (1854-1855)

555

The war in Italy—Loss of Lombardy (1859)

558

 

CHAPTER XXXIV

Attempts At Constitutional GovernmentWar With Prussia (1860-1866) - Return to constitutional government—Patents of 1860 and 1862

561

Opposition of the nationalities to the centralizing reforms—Insurrection in Poland (1863)

564

War against Prussia and Italy—Austria excluded from Germany— Loss of Venetia (1866)

567

 

CHAPTER XXXV

The Dual Constitution (1867) - Austria after Sadowa

572

Agreement with Hungary—The dual government (1867)

573

Slav protests against the dual government

577

Liberal reforms

580

Resistance of Bohemia—Declaration of 1868

582

The Galician resolution (1868)—Insurrection of the Bocchesi (1869)

584

Grievances of the Servians, Croats, and Roumanians against the Hungarians

586

 

CHAPTER XXXVI

 

AUSTRO-HUNGARY FROM 1867-1878 - Efforts towards federation—The Hohenwart ministry (1871)

589

Negociations with Bohemia—The fundamental articles

590

Federation checked

593

Present state of Austro-Hungary—Economical progress and liberal reforms

594

The Eastern Question reopened—Uncertain policy of Austria (1874-1878)

600

 

CHAPTER XXXVII

 

AUSTRO-HUNGARY FROM 1878-1889 - The occupation of Bosnia

603

Political consequences of this occupation

609

The Taaffe ministry and policy of conciliation towards Bohemia

612

Hungary

614

 

CHAPTER XXXVIII

Organization And Statistics Of Austro-hungary - Common affairs

617

Organization of Cisleithania

618

Organization of Hungary

621

Army and navy

622

Population

626

Natural resources

629

Means of communication—Industry and commerce

631

Finances

633

Religion

634

Intellectual culture

635

Table Of Sovereigns Who Have Reigned Over The States Which Either Now Compose The AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN Monarchy, Or Have Belonged To It

638

Losses And Gains Of The House Of Habsburg From Rudolf Of Habsburg To The Present Time

644

   

Index

649

Ethnographical Map Of Austro-hungary at end

649

  TRANSLATOR NOTE:

     The following translation, made from the third edition of the original work, is not meant for scholars, who will read what M. Leger has to say in his own words, but rather for the general public, which does not care to study the history of a foreign country in a foreign language. Though pains have been taken to render the author's meaning as closely as possible, it does not pretend to be literal, and an apology is due to M. Leger for the omission of one or two short passages, and some allusions which seemed especially meant for his countrymen.

Had it been possible for me to read Mr. Freeman's Preface before I began my work, I should have tried to avoid the use of the phrase "Austrian empire" as a translation of Petat Autrichien; as it is, I have used it in the same way as Englishmen use the expression " British empire." Students of Austro-Hungarian history will find the constant use of a good atlas a necessity, and it has therefore not been thought needful to reproduce M. Leger's maps—only one, and that an ethnographical map, being added to the work.

I am indebted for the list of books, and for the note on the pronunciation of certain letters in the Slavonic languages, to Mr. W. R. Morfill, of Oriel College, Oxford, to whom I wish here to express my thanks for the kindness and patience with which he has helped me throughout my work, by reading over the proofs in order to

correct the spelling of the Slav names. That, in spite of all his care, I have allowed errors to remain, I am only too well aware; but that is my fault, and does not lessen my debt to him. My thanks are also due to Professor W. J. Ashley, of Toronto University, Canada, who has read the whole of the translation, and helped me in many ways; and last, but not least, to Mr. Freeman for his Preface. It only remains for me to express my regret that M. Leger has not found a translator better fitted for the task of arousing interest in the subject he has so closely at heart.

THE TRANSLATOR, Oxford, 1889.

Works by Louis Léger:
  • La Crise autrichienne, Paris, 1868
  • Histoire de Autriche-Hongrie, Paris, 1879
  • Contes Populaires Slaves, 1882
  • Cours de Louis Léger, leçon d’ouverture au Collège de France, Revue bleue politique et littéraire, 1885
  • La Bulgarie, Paris, 1885
  • Nouvelles études slaves histoire et littérature, 1886
  • Russes et Slaves, études politiques et littéraires, Hachette, 1890
  • Le monde slave, études politiques et littéraires, Hachette, 1902
  • Nicolas Gogol, 1913
  • Moscou, 1910


[Published at DVHH.org 6 Jan 2013 by Jody McKim Pharr]


 

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